The Miserable World is a historical culture legacy reflecting the tragic life and destiny of the human in the middle of nineteen century in France. The original indication of the name of this novel was “people who’re suffering from great difficulty”， it attaches importance on the tragedy and position of the impoverished people, by doing this, Hugo was able to stress on the main idea of the novel, which is most exciting and attentive aspect, leading all of the readers to deep thinking.
We notice that in the preface, Hugo pointed out “As long as the social restrictions caused by laws and customs still exist, the human society would be turned to be a hell and people will suffer from inevitable disasters. If we couldn’t get rid of the following three issues existing in this century – men are getting down because of poorness, women are turning to be degenerate because of starving, children are becoming weak and helpless because of pervasive darkness of the world. In a boarder sense, if there are still foolish and impoverish in this world, the books with the character similar to this book will be conductive. “In the society of Hugo’s book, the labour are living the miserable life and exploited by the factories, the conscience of the human are disappearing because of the poverty, and people’s body and soul are distorted and afflicted by the prison. The misfortune of Valjean and Fantine is just the condensation of the destiny of the poor.
The Miserable World reveals the sin and villainy of the vice aspects of capitalism institution by telling the stories of the tragic life of Valjean and Fantine who were persecuted by the cruel world. The story strongly tells us the fact that the tragedy people are suffering is exactly the tragedy of the whole society. At the same time, Hugo putted a lot of emphasis on displaying the strong will and hardship of the individual through describing the internal agony and obsession of the main characters. The underlying reason why and how the whole miserable world take place is complicated and it needs fundamental analysis which given by Hugo on the basis of a democracy and humanism. He came up with the view that the country was out of rule of law, and the empty and hypocritical law, social injustice and inequity are the criminal result in the miserable life of the people as well as the whole society. Hugo went to great length to disclose the darkness, to protest the violence and injustice, to pursue the human right and democracy, the book shows great concern about the people and love. This novel is outstanding and valuable because it has surpass the history and reality, people in modern society can be influenced by it under theme of crucial issue of human life, people in our age will get sustainable progress in seeking our completion, perfect and harmony.
Victor Hugo , as a humanist , pays the most attention to the combat of human natures , not the struggle of classes in Les Misérables. He describes the changing of the hero from human to devil and then to angel , expressing his expectation of good human nature and progress in civilization. He reflects on the history of mankind in various aspects and criticizes the actual world in the name of future and human.
" Les Miserables " （1862） is representative works of Victor Hugo,as one of the most famous novels in the French literature.
The novel basic plot is Ran A Rang pitiful life history. He originally is one poor family background worker, because the income insufficient family member gets by, by one time stole the bread is arrested is put in prison. Passed 19 years firm prison and the bitter service life. The punishment completely after also has the larceny behavior, but benevolent bishop in the rice the sorrowful influence, the transformation is one shed oneself manner person. He uses an alias is Madland, works as the entrepreneur, and is pushed for mayor. But soon and further because exposed the status is arrested is put in prison, after escapes rescues the deceased female worker Fantin's daughter Cosette match from one bastard hand special, went to Paris. Afterwards again unceasingly encountered police's pursuit. The Ran A Rang entire life fills is imprisoned the pain which the bitter service and drifts about destitute, this is the novel main clue.
" Les Miserables " is the work which one realism and the romanticism unifies, the very many chapters glitter the realism glory, such as , in 1832 Paris's street barricade war all wrote is quite real. But the romanticism technique quite was also obvious in the plot arrangement, writes the many extraordinary events. If Ran A rang lets lie down is lifted in the coffin the monastery, he rescues from the street barricade Marilius, all is strange, molds, environment description, symbolic and contrast technique aspect and so on utilization in the character image, also manifests the romanticism the characteristic.